Pre-1900 - The Theory and Foundation
William Gilbert suggests a link between static electricity and magnetism.
Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction - the action of induced electrical current in a wire crossing lines of magnetic force.
K.A. Steinheil of Munich shows that one of two wires used in overland telegraphy could be dispensed with by using an earth ground. He looked forward to a time that the second wire could also be eliminated, and 'wireless' telegraphy could be used.
Joseph Henry calls attention to oscillatory discharges of a Leyden Jar, or condenser.
Samuel F.B. Morse sends the first message of any distance by Telegraph - about 40 miles. The message -"What hath God wrought!" The wired Telegraph and Morse Code are the first long distance, instant communication system the world has known.
Faraday suggests that light and electricity may be different manifestations of the same force.
James Clerk Maxwell formulates "Maxwell's Equations", which account for the actions of electromagnetic waves.
Mahlon Loomis makes a sketch of a vertical top-capacity loaded aerial with a keying device and an indicator, all in series to ground. He wrote a brief description of how the system would "remit shocks (to the atmosphere) affecting a distant reciprocating apparatus"
Mahlon Loomis transmits wireless telegraph messages between two mountains in Virginia.
Loomis used two kites flown 18 miles apart, each carrying a 600 foot wire that reached to the ground. When he interrupted the flow of electricity from the atmosphere, through the wire, to an earth ground, a galvonometer on the other kites wire measured a change in current.
He also made note of dark clouds passing over his apparatus causing too much electricity to be collected by the aerials...causing him to shut down operations.
On July 30th, Patent # 129,971 is granted to Mahlon Loomis by the United States Government for a form of wireless communication.
The "Loomis Aerial Telegraph Company" is incorporated.
Karl Ferdinand Braun discovers 'one way conduction' in metal sulfide crystals.
Werner Siemens shows that electricity travels along a wire with a velocity approximately equal to that of light.
Alexander G. Bell demonstrates the telephone.
Thomas A. Edison records sound on cylinders. The first recording - "Mary had a little lamb." 134K Wav
Edison begins work on the electric light.
The Berlin Academy of Sciences offers a prize to the scientist who can show experimentally that a changing electric field generates a transient electric field, and vice-versa.
The challenge is taken up by, among others...Heinrich Hertz.
Continue to 1899
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